Архив

2016
77
12
2015 - 2005
2005 - 1995
1995 - 1985
1985 - 1975
1975 - 1965
1965 - 1955
1955 - 1945
1945 - 1935

Кравченко И.А.

Статьи и рецензии

Кравченко И.А. Церковные иерархи в политической жизни Исландии середины XI — начала XIII в.
Church hierarchs in the political life of Iceland, mid-11th to early 13th century.
// Средние века. 2012. Вып. 73 (1-2). С. 253-263

В статье рассматривается политическая деятельность епископов Исландии середины XI — начала XIII в. В центре внимания исследования стоят роль и методы воздействия высшего клира в процедурах урегулирования конфликтов между представителями исландской родовой аристократии. В работе делается вывод о том, что способы влияния на протагонистов, как и успех вмешательства иерархов во многом зависел от их принадлежности к социальным типам «епископ-хёвдинг» и «епископ-без-годорда». Однако, если в первом случае, механизм разрешения столкновения не многим отличался от традиционного, то, во втором, церковнослужители активно прибегают к помощи письменного права и авторитета церкви.

This article attempts to consider political activity of Icelandic bishops from the middle of the 11th to the early 13th century. A special emphasis is laid upon the examination of the prelates’ role and methods of influence in the settlement of disputes between local powerful families. Close connections between ecclesiastical and secular elite in Iceland during this period can explain similar features in the basis of authority and the pattern of behaviour in reconciliation procedures.

The study argues that the mechanisms of influence on opponents in procedures of mediation and arbitration and consequences of such activity were largely defined by the social type the high ecclesiastics belonged to. The social types are defined as follows: a) “bishop-höfðing” and b) “bishop without goðorð”. The bishops of the former type (they were mostly leaders of powerful families) brought into play traditional methods of influence; however, the latter ones (they were usually distant relatives of the most influential families) actively resorted to the help of written law and authority of the Church. On the whole, participation in the main political conflicts enhanced the power of the heads of the Icelandic Church during the period under consideration.